In November 1916 the American presidential campaign draws to a close with speeches by President Woodrow Wilson and former President Theodore Roosevelt at Cooper Union, by Wilson and his Republican challenger Charles Evans Hughes at Madison Square Garden (still in those days on Madison Square), and by President Wilson at his New Jersey estate Shadow Lawn. After the election the outcome is unclear for days, but eventually is decided in favor of Wilson when the final tally in California narrowly goes his way. Jeanette Rankin, a Republican, becomes the first woman elected to the United States Congress, but the Democrats retain control of both houses. Meanwhile the World War continues in France, on the Isonzo River, in the Balkans and in Salonika. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary dies in Vienna at the age of eighty-six. Germany proclaims a new Kingdom of Poland. The British and the French fight the last battles of the Somme offensive and at Verdun. The Federal Reserve Board warns its member banks not to buy unsecured British notes.